Friday, April 17, 2009
Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves
Name : Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves
Location : Udayagiri and Khandagiri caves are rock cut caves excavated in two adjacent hills that rise abruptly from vast expanse of barren land. Both the hills stand separated only by a narrow road. Udayagiri hill which is 135 feet tall was earlier called Kumari Parvata whereas 118 feet high Khandagiri hill was known as Kumara Parvata. The hills are situated at a distance of around 6 km from Bhubaneswar.
Description : These were the Once School of Monks. The sandstone hills were not strong enough for cutting and the excavation have left them exposed to damage.There are 33 rock cut caves in all. 18 are in Udayagiri cave whereas 15 are in Khandagiri caves. The magnificent caves are said to be built in the 2nd century during the reign of King Kharavela of Chedi Dynasty. They were carved out as residential places for Jain Monks. They were discovered only in 1825. Many of the caves have beautiful carvings that reveal a lot about its origin and past. Inscription and carvings on the walls show that they once served as Jain Monasteries. Few caves also show connection to Buddhism. Notice that most of the caves are single storied but there are few that are double storied as well.
Udayagiri Caves : Udayagiri Hills which means 'Sunrise Hills'. You will find caves at different levels of the hill. There are 18 caves in Udayagiri starting from the base of the hill itself. All the caves are numbered and many of them are also named. The main and the most attractive caves is situated at the base itself. Named as Rani Gumpha, it is one of the few double storied caves in these hills. 'Rani Gumpha' or 'Queen Cave' is the largest cave. The carvings on the wall generally depict scenes of celebration on king's victorious return. There are religious carving as well as scenes from the royal courts. Jain symbols are also found at many parts. Ganesh Gumpha which is situated directly above Rani Gumpha is another major cave. The hall strongly resembles a Buddhist chaitya hall. The figures on the wall clearly show that they were once the worship halls for Jain monks. Other interesting cave is Bagh Gumpha and Hathi Gumpha. The entrance to the Bagh Gumpha is carved in the shape of a tiger's open mouth and is visually quite splendid. Though Hathi Gumpha is not as appealing as others but it has great importance historically. A 17 line Brahmi inscription tells us about the expeditions and victories of King Kharavela.
Khandagiri Caves : Khandagiri hill houses 15 caves of which Ananta Cave is the most impressive one. Along with the caves, there are a couple of Jain Temples as well. Even these caves are numbered with few are being named. One thing to notice is that most of the caves are named based on the carvings on the walls of the caves. Like Cave 1 and 2 are named 'Tatowa Cave' as there are carvings of two parrots on the door arches. The caves have figures as well inscriptions on the walls. Then comes the main Ananta Gumpha. The cave is named after carvings of two serpents on the entrance. To save the cave from falling, there have been few additions done as a part of restoration work. The carvings on the walls of the cave depict figures of women and children, athletes, lions, bulls and many other animals. The carvings are different in all the caves. Carvings and structure of some caves tells us that they were once used as dormitories for Jain ascetics.
Website : http://www.indialine.com/travel/orissa/bhubaneshwar/udagiri-khandagiri-caves.html